# Circlizing Numbers

She makes the sound the sea makes to calm me down (Dissolve Me, Alt-J)

Searching how to do draw chord diagrams in the Internet with `ggplot2` I found a very-easy-to-use package called `circlize` which does exactly that. A chord diagram shows relationships between things so the input to draw it is simply a matrix with the intensity of these relations. In this experiment I use this package to circlize numbers in this way:

• I take a number with many digits (`Rmpfr` package is very useful to obtain large numbers), I convert it to text and remove punctuation characters (necessary if number has decimals)
• Function `CreateAdjacencyMatrix` creates a 10×10 matrix where the element [i,j] contains the number of times that number “i” precedes to number “j” in the previous string (i and j from 0 to 9); this is the input to create diagram.

These diagrams are the result of circlizing four famous constants: Pi (green), Gamma (purple), Catalan (blue) and Logarithm constants (red):

Just two conclusions of my own to end:

• Circlize package is very easy to use and generates very nice diagrams
• Chord diagrams remember me to dreamcatchers
• The more I use `RColorBrewer` package the more I like it

This is the code to circlize numbers:

```library(Rmpfr)
library(circlize)
library(RColorBrewer)
s=gsub("\\.", "", x)
m=matrix(0, 10, 10)
for (i in 1:(nchar(s)-1)) m[as.numeric(substr(s, i, i))+1, as.numeric(substr(s, i+1, i+1))+1]=m[as.numeric(substr(s, i, i))+1, as.numeric(substr(s, i+1, i+1))+1]+1
rownames(m) = 0:9;colnames(m) = 0:9
m}
jpeg(filename = "Chords.jpg", width = 800, height = 800, quality = 100)
par(mfrow=c(2,2), mar = c(1, 1, 1, 1))
chordDiagram(m1, grid.col = "darkgreen",
col = colorRamp2(quantile(m1, seq(0, 1, by = 0.25)), brewer.pal(5,"Greens")),
transparency = 0.4, annotationTrack = c("name", "grid"))
chordDiagram(m2, grid.col = "mediumpurple4",
col = colorRamp2(quantile(m2, seq(0, 1, by = 0.25)), brewer.pal(5,"Purples")),
transparency = 0.4, annotationTrack = c("name", "grid"))
chordDiagram(m3, grid.col = "midnightblue",
col = colorRamp2(quantile(m3, seq(0, 1, by = 0.25)), brewer.pal(5,"Blues")),
transparency = 0.4, annotationTrack = c("name", "grid"))
chordDiagram(m4, grid.col = "red3",
col = colorRamp2(quantile(m4, seq(0, 1, by = 0.25)), brewer.pal(5,"Reds")),
transparency = 0.4, annotationTrack = c("name", "grid"))
dev.off()
```

# Hi

Why do some mathematicians wear a white coat? Are they afraid to be splashed by an integral? (Read on Twitter)

If you run into someone wearing a white coat who tells you something like

e raised to minus 3 by zero point five plus x squared plus y squared between two plus e raised to minus x squared minus y squared between two by cosine of four by x

do not be afraid: is just a harmless mathematician waving to you. Look at this:

This is the code to draw these mathematical greetings:

```levelpersp=function(x, y, z, colors=heat.colors, ...) {
## getting the value of the midpoint
zz=(z[-1,-1] + z[-1,-ncol(z)] + z[-nrow(z),-1] + z[-nrow(z),-ncol(z)])/4
## calculating the breaks
breaks=hist(zz, plot=FALSE)\$breaks
## cutting up zz
cols=colors(length(breaks)-1)
zzz=cut(zz, breaks=breaks, labels=cols)
## plotting
persp(x, y, z, col=as.character(zzz), ...)
}
x=seq(-5, 5, length= 30);y=x
f=function(x,y) {exp(-3*((0.5+x)^2+y^2/2))+exp(-x^2-y^2/2)*cos(4*x)}
z=outer(x, y, f)
z[z>.001]=.001;z[z<0]=z[1,1]
levelpersp(x, y, z, theta = 30, phi = 55, expand = 0.5, axes=FALSE, box=FALSE, shade=.25)
```

# 3D-Harmonographs In Motion

I would be delighted to co write a post (Andrew Wyer)

One of the best things about writing a blog is that occasionally you get to know very interesting people. Last October 13th I published this post about the harmonograph, a machine driven by pendulums which creates amazing curves. Two days later someone called Andrew Wyer made this comment about the post:

Hi, I was fascinated by the harmonographs – I remember seeing similar things done on paper on kids tv in the seventies. I took your code and extended it into 3d so I could experiment with the rgl package. I created some beautiful figures (which I would attach if this would let me). In lieu of that here is the code:

I ran his code and I was instantly fascinated: resulting curves were really beautiful. I suggested that we co-write a post and he was delighted with the idea. He proposed to me the following improvement of his own code:

I will try to create an animated gif of one figure

Such a good idea! And no sooner said than done: Andrew rewrote his own code to create stunning animated images of 3D-Harmonograph curves like these:

• Andrew creates 3D curves by adding a third oscillation z generated in the same way as x and y and adds a little colour by setting the colour of each point to a colour in the RGB scale related to its point in 3d space
• Function `spheres3d `to produce an interactive plot that you can drag around to view from different angles; function `spin3d `will rotate the figure around the z axis and at 5 rpm in this case and function `movie3d `renders each frame in a temporary png file and then calls ImageMagick to stitch them into an animated gif file. It is necessary to install ImageMagick separately to create the movie.
• Giving it a duration of 12 seconds at 5 rpm is one rotation which at 12 frames per second results in 144 individual png files but these (by default) are temporary and deleted when the gif is produced.

Although I don’t know Andrew personally, I know he is a good partner to work with. Thanks a lot for sharing this work of art with me and allowing me to share it in Ripples as well.

Here you have the code. I like to imagine these curves as orbits of unexplored planets in a galaxy far, far away …

```library(rgl)
library(scatterplot3d)
#Extending the harmonograph into 3d
#Antonio's functions creating the oscillations
xt = function(t) exp(-d1*t)*sin(t*f1+p1)+exp(-d2*t)*sin(t*f2+p2)
yt = function(t) exp(-d3*t)*sin(t*f3+p3)+exp(-d4*t)*sin(t*f4+p4)
#Plus one more
zt = function(t) exp(-d5*t)*sin(t*f5+p5)+exp(-d6*t)*sin(t*f6+p6)
#Sequence to plot over
t=seq(1, 100, by=.001)
#generate some random inputs
f1=jitter(sample(c(2,3),1))
f2=jitter(sample(c(2,3),1))
f3=jitter(sample(c(2,3),1))
f4=jitter(sample(c(2,3),1))
f5=jitter(sample(c(2,3),1))
f6=jitter(sample(c(2,3),1))
d1=runif(1,0,1e-02)
d2=runif(1,0,1e-02)
d3=runif(1,0,1e-02)
d4=runif(1,0,1e-02)
d5=runif(1,0,1e-02)
d6=runif(1,0,1e-02)
p1=runif(1,0,pi)
p2=runif(1,0,pi)
p3=runif(1,0,pi)
p4=runif(1,0,pi)
p5=runif(1,0,pi)
p6=runif(1,0,pi)
#and turn them into oscillations
x = xt(t)
y = yt(t)
z = zt(t)
#create values for colours normalised and related to x,y,z coordinates
cr = abs(z)/max(abs(z))
cg = abs(x)/max(abs(x))
cb = abs(y)/max(abs(y))
dat=data.frame(t, x, y, z, cr, cg ,cb)
#plot the black and white version
with(dat, scatterplot3d(x,y,z, pch=16,cex.symbols=0.25, axis=FALSE ))
with(dat, scatterplot3d(x,y,z, pch=16, color=rgb(cr,cg,cb),cex.symbols=0.25, axis=FALSE ))
#Set the stage for 3d plots
# clear scene:
clear3d("all")
# white background
bg3d(color="white")
#lights...camera...
light3d()
#action
# draw shperes in an rgl window
#create animated gif (call to ImageMagic is automatic)
movie3d( spin3d(axis=c(0,0,1),rpm=5),fps=12, duration=12 )
#2d plots to give plan and elevation shots
plot(x,y,col=rgb(cr,cg,cb),cex=.05)
plot(y,z,col=rgb(cr,cg,cb),cex=.05)
plot(x,z,col=rgb(cr,cg,cb),cex=.05)
```

# A Little Present For Coldplay

Gravity, release me, and don’t ever hold me down, now my feet won’t touch the ground (Coldplay, Life In Technicolor II)

Inspired by this nice post and by this cover of a Coldplay’s album:

I have dared to do this using ggplot, polar coordinates and Google Fonts:

Coldplay: feel free to use it for some future album.

```library(ggplot2)
library(extrafont)
windowsFonts(Monoton=windowsFont("Monoton"))
butterfly=function(x) 8-sin(x)+2*sin(3*x)+2*sin(5*x)-sin(7*x)+3*cos(2*x)-2*cos(4*x)
opt=theme(legend.position="none",
panel.background = element_rect(fill="black"),
panel.grid = element_blank(),
axis.ticks=element_blank(),
axis.title=element_blank(),
axis.text =element_blank())
ggplot(data.frame(x = c(0, 2*pi)), aes(x)) +
stat_function(fun=butterfly, geom="density", fill="#FC0C54", colour="#FC0C54") +
coord_polar(start=-pi)+
geom_text(x=.5, y=-14, colour="turquoise2", family="Monoton", label="COLDPLAY", size=12)+
geom_text(x=1.5, y=14, colour="turquoise2", family="Monoton", angle=90, label="Up Down Up Down Up Down", size=6)+
opt
```