How Do Cities Feel?

If you are lost and feel alone, circumnavigate the globe (For You, Coldplay)

You can not consider yourself a R-blogger until you do an analysis of Twitter using twitteR package. Everybody knows it. So here I go.

Inspired by the fabulous work of Jonathan Harris I decided to compare human emotions of people living (or twittering in this case) in different cities. My plan was analysing tweets generated in different locations of USA and UK with one thing in common: all of them must contain the string “I FEEL”. These are the main steps I followed:

  • Locate cities I want to analyze using world cities database of maps package
  • Download tweets around these locations using searchTwitter function of twitteR package.
  • Cross tweets with positive and negative lists of words and calculate a simple scoring for each tweet as number of positive words – number of negative words
  • Calculate how many tweets have non-zero scoring; since these tweets put into words some emotion I call them sentimental tweets
  • Represent cities in a bubble chart where x-axis is percentage of sentimental tweets, y-axis is average scoring and size of bubble is population

This is the result of my experiment:HowDoCitiesFeel3

These are my conclusions (please, do not take it seriously):

  • USA cities seem to have better vibrations and are more sentimental than UK ones
  • Capital city is the happiest one for both countries
  • San Francisco (USA) is the most sentimental city of the analysis; on the other hand, Liverpool (UK) is the coldest one
  • The more sentimental, the better vibrations

From my point of view, this analysis has some important limitations:

  • It strongly depends on particular events (i.e. local football team wins the championship)
  • I have no idea of what kind of people is behind tweets
  • According to my experience, searchTwitter only works well for a small number of searches (no more than 300); for larger number of tweets to return, it use to give malformed JSON response error from server

Anyway, I hope it will serve as starting point of some other analysis in the future. At least, I learned interesting things about R doing it.

Here you have the code:

if (!file.exists('cacert.perm'))
  download.file(url = '', destfile='cacert.perm')
Cred <- OAuthFactory$new(consumerKey=consumerKey,
Cred$handshake(cainfo=system.file("CurlSSL", "cacert.pem", package="RCurl"))
#Save credentials
save(Cred, file="twitter authentification.Rdata")
load("twitter authentification.Rdata")
options(RCurlOptions = list(cainfo = system.file("CurlSSL", "cacert.pem", package = "RCurl")))
#Cities to analyze
  CITY=c('Edinburgh', 'London', 'Glasgow', 'Birmingham', 'Liverpool', 'Manchester',
         'New York', 'Washington', 'Las Vegas', 'San Francisco', 'Chicago','Los Angeles'),
  COUNTRY=c("UK", "UK", "UK", "UK", "UK", "UK", "USA", "USA", "USA", "USA", "USA", "USA"))
str_trim(paste(world.cities$name, world.cities$country.etc, sep=",")),
str_trim(paste(cities$CITY, cities$COUNTRY, sep=","))
cities2$SEARCH=paste(cities2$lat, cities2$long, "10mi", sep = ",")
#Download tweets
for (i in 1:nrow(cities2))
  tw=searchTwitter("I FEEL", n=400, geocode=cities2[i,]$SEARCH)
  tweets=rbind(merge(cities[i,], twListToDF(tw),all=TRUE), tweets)
#Save tweets
write.csv(tweets, file="tweets.csv", row.names=FALSE)
#Import csv file
#Download lexicon from
hu.liu.pos = scan('lexicon/positive-words.txt',  what='character', comment.char=';')
hu.liu.neg = scan('lexicon/negative-words.txt',  what='character', comment.char=';')
#Function to clean and score tweets
score.sentiment=function(sentences, pos.words, neg.words, .progress='none')
  scores=laply(sentences, function(sentence, pos.word, neg.words) {
    word.list=str_split(sentence, '\\s+')
    pos.matches=match(words, pos.words)
    neg.matches=match(words, neg.words)
    score=sum(pos.matches) - sum(neg.matches)
  }, pos.words, neg.words, .progress=.progress)
  scores.df=data.frame(score=scores, text=sentences)
cities.scores=score.sentiment(city.tweets[1:nrow(city.tweets),], hu.liu.pos, hu.liu.neg, .progress='text')
cities.scores$pos2=apply(cities.scores, 1, function(x) regexpr(",",x[2])[1]-1)
cities.scores$CITY=apply(cities.scores, 1, function(x) substr(x[2], 1, x[3]))
cities.scores=merge(x=cities.scores, y=cities, by='CITY')
df1=aggregate(cities.scores["score"], by=cities.scores[c("CITY")], FUN=length)
names(df1)=c("CITY", "TWEETS")
df2=aggregate(cities.scores2["score"], by=cities.scores2[c("CITY")], FUN=length)
names(df2)=c("CITY", "TWEETS.SENT")
df3=aggregate(cities.scores2["score"], by=cities.scores2[c("CITY")], FUN=mean)
names(df3)=c("CITY", "TWEETS.SENT.SCORING")
#Data frame with results
df.result=join_all(list(df1,df2,df3,cities2), by = 'CITY', type='full')
#Plot results
radius <- sqrt(df.result$pop/pi)
symbols(100*df.result$TWEETS.SENT/df.result$TWEETS, df.result$TWEETS.SENT.SCORING, circles=radius,
        inches=0.85, fg="white", bg="gold", xlab="Sentimental Tweets", ylab="Scoring Of Sentimental Tweets (Average)",
        main="How Do Cities Feel?")
text(100*df.result$TWEETS.SENT/df.result$TWEETS, df.result$TWEETS.SENT.SCORING, paste(df.result$CITY, df.result$country.etc, sep="-"), cex=1, col="gray50")

16 thoughts on “How Do Cities Feel?

  1. Thanks for the great post, truly interesting.

    I’m afraid I run into some the re-occuring and sometimes mysterious: “arguments imply differing number of rows” error after runing jeffrey’s sentiment scoring algorithm – cities.scores=score.sentiment(city.tweets[1:nrow(city.tweets),], …

    Now here I might say something stupid, please excuse me I only know so much about R.

    I can understand differing number of rows being a problem when merging data.frames (rbind, cbind) but not in this case; I have different number of tweets for each city, so what?

      1. Thanks for your reply!

        I am not sure why but I suspect it has to do with that [1:nrow(city.tweets),].

        Anyways, thanks very much for your time, you will find the code below.

        > #load libraries
        > libs lapply(libs, require, character.only=TRUE)
        Loading required package: twitteR
        Loading required package: RCurl
        Loading required package: bitops
        Loading required package: maps
        Loading required package: plyr

        Attaching package: ‘plyr’

        The following object is masked from ‘package:twitteR’:


        Loading required package: stringr
        Loading required package: scales
        [1] TRUE

        [1] TRUE

        [1] TRUE

        [1] TRUE

        [1] TRUE

        [1] TRUE

        [1] TRUE

        > #set working directory
        > setwd (“D:/Social Media Analysis/Cities”)
        > #Register Twitter OAuth
        > # I use the updated Twitter package from Github
        > #( – Works fine
        > setup_twitter_oauth(“API Key”, “API Secret”,
        + “Access Token”,
        + “Access Secret”)
        [1] “Using direct authentication”
        > options(RCurlOptions = list(cainfo = system.file(“CurlSSL”, “cacert.pem”, package = “RCurl”)))
        > #Cities to analyze
        > cities=data.frame(
        + CITY=c(‘Edinburgh’, ‘London’, ‘Glasgow’, ‘Birmingham’, ‘Liverpool’, ‘Manchester’,
        + ‘New York’, ‘Washington’, ‘Las Vegas’, ‘San Francisco’, ‘Chicago’,’Los Angeles’),
        + COUNTRY=c(“UK”, “UK”, “UK”, “UK”, “UK”, “UK”, “USA”, “USA”, “USA”, “USA”, “USA”, “USA”))
        > data(world.cities)
        > cities2=world.cities[which(!
        + str_trim(paste(world.cities$name, world.cities$country.etc, sep=”,”)),
        + str_trim(paste(cities$CITY, cities$COUNTRY, sep=”,”))
        + ))),]
        > cities2$SEARCH=paste(cities2$lat, cities2$long, “10mi”, sep = “,”)
        > cities2$CITY=cities2$name
        > #Download tweets
        > tweets=data.frame()
        > for (i in 1:nrow(cities2))
        + {
        + tw=searchTwitter(“I FEEL”, n=400, geocode=cities2[i,]$SEARCH)
        + tweets=rbind(merge(cities[i,], twListToDF(tw),all=TRUE), tweets)
        + }
        > #Save tweets
        > write.csv(tweets, file=”tweets.csv”, row.names=FALSE)
        > #Import csv file
        > city.tweets=read.csv(“tweets.csv”)
        > #Download lexicon from
        > hu.liu.pos = scan(‘positive-words.txt’, what=’character’, comment.char=’;’)
        Read 2006 items
        > hu.liu.neg = scan(‘negative-words.txt’, what=’character’, comment.char=’;’)
        Read 4783 items
        > #source sentiment algorithm – (
        > #analysis-tutorial-201107/tree/master/R)
        > source(“Sentiment.R”)
        > cities.scores=score.sentiment(city.tweets[1:nrow(city.tweets),], hu.liu.pos, hu.liu.neg, .progress=’text’)
        |=======================================================================================| 100%
        Error in data.frame(score = scores, text = sentences) :
        arguments imply differing number of rows: 18, 4800
        Called from: top level

        Traceback points to this line in the Sentiment.R file:
        scores.df = data.frame(score=scores, text=sentences)

  2. Hi there, I am new to R. I am getting

    Error: Unauthorized

    after the following line:

    Cred$handshake(cainfo=system.file(“CurlSSL”, “cacert.pem”, package=”RCurl”))

    I think this is because of:

    consumerKey = “YOUR CONSUMER KEY HERE”
    consumerSecret = “YOUR CONSUMER SECRET HERE”

    May I ask what does consumerKey and ConsumerSecret referring to?

    1. Hello, can you please guide me how did you manage to sort out the error because I am also facing the same one.

      1. cities.scores=score.sentiment(city.tweets$text, hu.liu.pos, hu.liu.neg, .progress=’text’) – does this help?

  3. I keep running into the rate limit. How did you get around that? Here is the warning message:
    “In doRppAPICall(“search/tweets”, n, params = params, retryOnRateLimit = retryOnRateLimit, :
    400 tweets were requested but the API can only return 399″

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